The amount of excipients should be such that the pills are obtained with a mass of no more than 0.5 g. In the recipe given for the example, this is achieved very easily, since there are only 0.07 g of medicinal substances per 1 pill (atropine sulfate in the form of trituration 1: 100) , and excipients are usually required no more than 100% of the amount of medicinal substances. If the amount of medicinal substances is significant and it is impossible to get pills within 0.5 g, then the doctor prescribes a double number of pills from this mass and suggests taking two pills at the same time.
General technological operations and equipment. Making pills consists of the following operations: mixing of ingredients; obtaining a pill mass; pill core molding; cutting the rod; pill molding; sprinkling or coating of pills.Read More
Viagra pills, all solids are turned into the finest powder. The order of mixing them is the same as when preparing complex powders. If the pills contain poisonous and potent substances, then they are previously dissolved in water or ethanol. Mixing and making of the pill mass is done in mortars. The pill mass should be a well-kneaded dough that lags behind the walls of the mortar and pestle. Spatulas are used to remove the mass from the walls and pestle.Read More
The finished pill mass is weighed, the amount of mass is indicated in the recipe and the written control passport and transferred to a pill machine (Fig.20.1). The pill machine consists of a wooden machine with frosted glass, two cutters, a wooden board for rolling out the rod and a roller (mug) for rounding the cut pills. Cutters are made of stainless steel, aluminum, plastic and are used depending on the chemical properties of the ingredients that make up the pill mass. The prepared and weighed mass is rolled out into a stick of such length that it fits exactly between the ends of the cutter.Read More
The number of grooves on both sides of the cutter is 30, but they are different sizes. If more than 30 pills are prescribed, then the rod is cut into 2-3 equal parts and the corresponding number of pills is rolled out from each part.
The cut pills are rounded off with a roller. The height of the roller flange should match the size of the pill. The finished pills should be the same, round, smooth and bounce off the board when dropped from a height of 10-15 cm. During the preparation of pills, you should not touch the pill mass, the rod, the finished pills with your hands. The pill stick is taken with a piece of waxed paper.
Arsenous anhydride is soluble in 65 parts of water, phytin is almost insoluble. Thus, the solid phase of the pill mass consists of the medicinal substances themselves. The liquid phase can be created using some plant extract, such as licorice, but it is customary to make all pills with arsenic white ("white pills").
The resulting mixture is diluted with the rest of the phytin, moistened with syrup and compacted with flour, crushing until a plastic mass lagging behind the mortar and pestle is obtained. If the mass turned out to be soft, then you can add a little starch. The resulting pills are sprinkled with starch.
To dissolve potassium iodide, about 5 ml of water will be required, which will entail an increase in the size of the pills. Therefore, it is necessary to turn potassium iodide into a fine powder and mix with 3-4 g of a thick extract of licorice root. In this case, potassium iodide in a significant part will dissolve in the moisture of the extract. But it is impossible to obtain a proper pill mass from the extract alone, as it will be very viscous. Therefore, it is compacted with licorice powder, adding it little by little until a mass of appropriate plasticity is obtained.Pills with soluble and insoluble medicinal substances. More often, there are prescriptions that simultaneously include soluble and insoluble (or sparingly soluble) medicinal substances. For example, in the prescription of Shereshevsky's pills (recipe 20.7)
Phenobarbital and methylthiouracil in the pill mass manifest themselves as consistency substances. The missing amount of solid phase is compensated by the powder of valerian root. Potassium iodide is dissolved in 3-4 drops of water, after which iodine is dissolved (due to the frequent repeatability of this recipe, for the convenience of work, a solution is prepared: 5 g I2 + 50 g KI and water to a volume of 100 ml; this solution is measured by drops according to the calculation).Then phenobarbital and methylthiouracil are ground in the solution, the resulting mixture is mixed with 3 g of valerian extract and compacted with valerian root powder. Replacing the powder of valerian root with any other powder is irrational, since valerian in this recipe is one of the medicinal substances.
LPills with herbal extracts. This refers to plant extracts that are introduced into the pill mass as medicinal substances. Thick or dry extracts (the last after moistening with ethanol) are plasticized with plant powders, which are often introduced as medicinal substances (for example, rhubarb rhizome powder).
First, rhubarb powder is ground, then dry buckthorn extract is added. Part of the mixture is poured and belladonna extract is introduced (dry extract is used in double quantity), after which the remainder of the powder mixture is added. Subsequent wetting with 70% ethanol results in a good plastic mass (no need to compress!). Work should be done quickly, as the ethanol evaporates and the mass dries up. In case of excessive softening of the mass, it is recommended to leave some rhubarb powder.
If liquid extracts are to be introduced into the pill mass, then, if necessary, a large volume of them is first concentrated in a water bath to about 2 g, after which they are mixed with other components of the pill mass.
Pills with water-immiscible liquids. Pill masses with liquid medicinal preparations that are not miscible with water (tar, turpentine, male fern extract, etc.) are among the difficult to manufacture pill masses. With the wrong selection of excipients, the release of the liquid component inevitably occurs and poor disintegration of the pills is noted, not to mention other mass defects (poor plasticity, large mass, etc.).Read More